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This article must be studied in context of the whole series of articles. To start at the beginning of the series, please go to /god/evidences.php.
The Bible repeatedly claims that God created all things in nature: earth, heavenly bodies, plants, animals, and people.
Genesis 1:1 - In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. He simply spoke what should be created, and it was so (vv 3,6,9,11,14,20,24,26).
Psalm 33:6-9 - The heavens were made by the word of God, by the breath of His mouth. The same is true regarding the earth and its inhabitants: He spoke and commanded, and it was done.
Psalm 148:3-5 - God commanded and heavenly hosts were created.
Hebrews 11:3 - By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God.
Let us examine this doctrine as evidence for the claims of the Bible.
Before examining the evidence for creation, please consider what conclusions the Bible says this would prove. If the only reasonable explanation for the existence of the universe is that God created it, what would that tell us about God?
Obviously if the universe was created by God, then God must exist. But note also that no god can be the true God unless He is the Creator.
Nehemiah 9:6 - You alone are the Lord; You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and everything on it.
Psalm 86:8-10 - He alone is God. There is none like Him among the gods. All nations should worship Him, because he made them.
Psalm 95:1-7 - The Lord is the great God and King above all gods. He made the sea and His hands formed the dry land. Worship the Lord our Maker, for He is God.
Psalms 100:3 - Know that the Lord, He is God. It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves.
Isaiah 45:18 - For thus says the Lord, Who created the heavens, Who is God, Who formed the earth and made it, Who has established it: "I am the Lord, and there is no other."
Jeremiah 10:11,12 - "Gods" that did not make heaven and earth will perish! Any "god" that did not make the Universe, must be a false God! He will perish.
1 Chronicles 16:25-36 (also Psalm 96:1-10) - How do we know we should fear God, worship Him, recognize that He reigns, call on Him to save us, and believe that He will judge us? Why not trust ourselves, or something in nature, or some idol? Because God made the heavens and established the earth: That's why!
The Old Testament teaches that God is clearly proved to exist and to be God because He made heaven and earth. No one can be God, if he did not make heaven and earth.
[2 Kings 19:15; Psalm 8:3-9; Isaiah 37:16; 17:7; 40:25,26; 42:5-9; Jer. 32:17; 14:22; 51:15-19]
Acts 4:24 - Disciples raised their voices to God and said: "Lord, You are God, who made heaven and earth and the sea, and all that is in them."
Acts 14:15 - People who worship idols should be taught to turn from these useless things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all things that are in them.
Acts 17:24-29 - Again idol worshippers were taught they should not worship idols of gold or silver. The true God who rules heaven and earth is the one who made the world and gives us life.
Romans 1:20 - The things that have been made by God clearly reveal, not just His power, but also His Godhead. They prove that He is God, and those who fail to recognize Him as God are without excuse. Those who reject these truths will fall deeper and deeper into error and will absolutely be rejected by God (see vv 18-32).
In the New Testament, as in the Old, creation is proof of who is the true God. The true God is the one who created heaven and earth. No one can be God, if he did not make heaven and earth.
We will see that the Bible claims that we can confirm the truth of creation simply by observing the Universe. If we conclude that creation is true, then it follows that God must exist. But it also follows that no "god" can be the true God unless it claims to be the Creator of the universe and is sufficiently wise and powerful to accomplish creation. Furthermore, no system can be the true religion unless it claims to worship something or someone that is an adequate Creator.
By nature, the Creator must be God and no one can be God who is not the Creator. This would eliminate all forms of idolatry, because, even if they claim some god is the creator, they also worship other gods that they acknowledge are not the creator. If creation is true, it disproves all forms of idolatry as being false.
If God created the universe, then He must be older than the universe. Furthermore, since every effect must have an adequate cause, it follows that something/someone must be eternal and everything else came from it/him. If God created the universe, then He must be eternal.
John 1:1-3 - The Word (Jesus - v14) was in the beginning with God and was God. All things were made through Him.
Colossians 1:16,17 - All things were made by Him (Jesus), and He is before all things. Obviously if God made all things, He must have existed before the things He made.
Isaiah 40:28 - The everlasting God is the Creator of the ends of the earth. (See also Psa. 90:2 below.)
Psalms 90:2 - Before the mountains were brought forth, Or ever You had formed the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God.
Revelation 10:6 - He who lives forever and ever, is the One who created heaven and earth and sea and everything in them.
The fact God created everything else would imply that He is Himself eternal. Otherwise, it would be reasonable to ask who made Him.
Again, no god can be the true God unless it is eternal. And no religious system can be true if it worships any god that is not eternal.
If God is the creator, then God must have created life. But life comes only from life, therefore the Creator God must be alive from eternity.
Genesis 1:11,12,20,21,24-27; 2:7,21-23 - God made all forms of life at the beginning: plants, birds, fish, land animals, and people. All life came from God.
Job 33:4 - The Spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.
Isaiah 42:5 - God created the heavens and spread forth the earth. He gives breath to the people on it and spirit to those who walk on it.
Acts 14:15 - Paul taught idol worshipers to turn from these useless things (idols) to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all things that are in them. If God made life, then God must have life. He is the living God. Idols cannot qualify.
Acts 17:24-29 - Again idol worshipers were taught that God made the world, and He gives to all life, breath, and all things. In Him we live and move and have being. We are His offspring, so we should not think of God as something dead like gold, silver, or stone.
1 Timothy 6:13 - God gives life to all things.
Revelation 10:6 - The God who lives forever and ever created heaven and earth and the sea and the things that are in them.
How could life come from a non-living source? The sun, ocean, mountains, etc., cannot be God. Neither can statues made of metal or stone or wood. They are not alive.
Creation proves God must be alive. If we are the offspring of God, who gave us life, then He must have life. This is why so many passages refer to God as "the living God."
[Job 12:7-12; Psalm 100:3; 139:13-16; Prov. 22:2; Isaiah 64:8; Jer. 27:5; Heb. 12:9; 1 Cor. 8:6; Job 33:4; Matt. 16:16 1 Thess. 1:9; 2 Cor. 6:16]
If the universe was created by God, then God must be infinitely powerful. No human power or other physical power is capable of creating the universe. Creation proves that God not only exists but also is infinitely powerful.
Psalm 89:11-13 - God founded the world. He has a mighty arm and a strong hand.
Psalms 65:6 - God established the mountains by His strength, being clothed with power.
Jeremiah 10:12 - He has made the earth by His power. [51:15]
Jeremiah 27:5 - I have made the earth, the man and the beast that are on the ground, by My great power and by My outstretched arm.
Romans 1:20 - For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse.
Jeremiah 32:17 - Lord God! Behold, You have made the heavens and the earth by Your great power and outstretched arm. There is nothing too hard for You.
Job 9:8-10 - God made heaven and the constellations. He does great things past finding out, wonders without number.
Job 26:7-14 - Describing various works God has done in the universe, Job said, "the thunder of His power, who can understand?"
Not only was great power required to make the universe, but it had to be power much greater than any that people have. We could never make such a universe.
Again, no god can be the true God unless it is infinitely powerful. And no religious system can be true if it worships any god that is not infinitely powerful.
If the universe was created by God, then God must be infinitely wise. No human wisdom or other material wisdom is capable of creating the universe. Creation proves that God not only exists but also is infinitely wise.
Psalm 136:5-9 - By wisdom God made the heavens and the heavenly bodies.
Jeremiah 51:15 - He has established the world by His wisdom, and stretched out the heaven by His understanding. [10:12]
Proverbs 3:19-26 - The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens.
Ecclesiastes 11:5 - As you do not know the way of the wind, or how the bones grow in the womb of her who is with child, so you do not know the works of God who makes everything.
Isaiah 40:28 - The Creator of the ends of the earth, neither faints nor is weary. His understanding is unsearchable.
Romans 11:33-36 - All things are of Him and through Him (i.e., created by Him) and unto Him. His ways and judgments are unsearchable and past finding out. Who can know His mind or give Him counsel?
By observing the universe we can know that its Maker had to be very wise. In fact, His wisdom must be infinitely beyond our own. As men study the creation, there are still many things about it that we cannot even understand how they function, let alone could we have planned it and created it to begin with!
Again, no god can be the true God unless it is infinitely wise. And no religious system can be true if it worships any god that is not infinitely wise.
[Psalm 104:24; Job 37:14-16; chap. 38]
Since God made the universe, He has the right and power to control it and do what He chooses with it.
Psalm 24:1,2 - Earth and all who dwell on it belong to God, because He founded and established it.
Psalms 89:11,12 - The heavens and earth and all its fullness are Yours, because You founded and created them.
[Psalm 95:5; 74:16,17; 100:3]
Since God made the universe and it belongs to Him, it follows that He should control it.
Isaiah 29:16 - The clay has no right to criticize how the potter made it. So we have no right to deny or criticize our Maker. He has the right to make us to be whatever He wants us to be. We must submit to the will of the maker. [45:9,10; 64:8; Rom. 9:20-24]
Acts 17:24 - God, who made the world and everything in it, is Lord (Ruler) of heaven and earth. He rules because He created.
Colossians 1:15-17 - Just as Jesus made the church and is preeminent over it (v18), so He is preeminent over His creation. It was made by Him (by His power) and for Him (to serve His purposes). [Heb. 2:10]
1 Peter 4:19 - We commit our souls to Him in doing good, because He is the Creator.
Romans 1:25 - It is a fundamental error to "serve" the creature rather than the Creator. Serve here means to obey Him as God (see vv 20-25 and the context).
Why should we fear God and keep His commands (Ecc. 12:13)? Because He made us for that purpose. As our Maker, He has every right to expect our service. As His creatures, we are obligated to give whatever service He requires.
Again, no god can be the true God unless it is adequate to create the whole universe. And no religious system can be true if it worships any god that is not the Creator.
[Romans 11:36; 1 Chron. 16:26,36; Psalm 96:2-10; 100:2,3; Jer. 27:5; 5:22; Ex. 4:11; 20:9-11; 31:16,17; Num. 16:22; Isaiah 51:12,13]
The fact that He created us demonstrates power and wisdom so great that we ought to worship Him, not anyone else (such as idols, etc.).
Deuteronomy 32:15-18 - People are rebuked because they forsook the God who made them. They served other gods and forgot the God who fathered them.
Psalm 86:8-10 - All nations should worship and glorify God, because He made them. He alone is God. No other gods are great like Him, because they cannot do works like His works (including creation).
Psalm 139:13,14 - God formed our inward parts. We are fearfully and wonderfully made, so we should praise God.
Psalm 149:1,2 - People should praise the Lord and rejoice in their Maker.
That which has been made ought to give glory to its maker. God's power to create proves that He deserves our worship. No one deserves our worship unless he created us.
Nehemiah 9:6 - God alone is the Lord, for He made heaven, earth and everything on it, seas and all that is in them. The host of heaven worships Him.
Psalm 33:6-9 - All the earth should fear the Lord and stand in awe of Him, because He commanded and it stood fast. The heavens were made by His word.
Psalm 95:1-7 - Worship before our Maker, for He is God. His hands formed the dry land.
Psalm 148:1-6 - Heavenly hosts should praise the name of the Lord, because He commanded and they were created.
Romans 11:36 - For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Why does glory belong to God? Because all things are of Him and through Him - i.e., He is the Creator. That is reason enough for us to give Him glory forever!
Revelation 4:11 - God should receive glory and honor and power. Why? Because He created all things. By His will they exist and were created.
Revelation 14:6,7 - The everlasting gospel says that people of every nation, tribe, and tongue should worship Him who made heaven and earth.
Romans 1:25 - Since God's power and Deity are clear from the things he made, people are without excuse (v20) when they worship and serve the creature rather than the Creator.
Note carefully the following absolute truth: Only the Creator should be worshipped, for only He has ultimate power. No one or no thing can be God unless it claims to be the Creator and is adequate to be the Creator. And no religious system can be true if it worships any god who is not the Creator.
The Bible openly and repeatedly argues that creation supports belief in the existence of God. It claims that, if we will examine the Universe around us, we can see for ourselves that God exists. And while this would not directly confirm the Bible to be the true revelation of God, yet it would confirm that the Bible is correct on this major point. And it would eliminate any religious system that does not teach the doctrine of creation and any religious system that worships any "god" who did not create the Universe.
[1 Chron. 16:25-29; Psalm 96:2-9; 19:1; 103:22; Ecc. 12:1; Isaiah 43:7,21; 1 Cor. 8:5,6]
Basically there are three common views of origins:
1. Creation - the belief that living things were created by God in a short period of time in the relatively recent past.
2. Organic evolution - the belief that man evolved from lower animals, which had themselves developed from simpler animals, over millions of years, entirely by natural processes (without God).
3. Theistic evolution - the belief that man evolved from lower animals gradually over millions of years, but the process was guided by God.
Most people realize that creation is a basic tenet of faith to those who believe in God (Rom. 1:20; Psalm 19:1). But evolution is just as important as a basic tenet of unbelievers (atheists, agnostics, humanists). Evolution is the unbeliever's explanation for the origin of the universe and life without God.
Our goal now is to examine the evidence for evolution and compare it to the evidence for creation.
We will examine evolution by quoting the actual content of texts that have been used in public high school science courses. Then we will examine the facts we can know about the world around us and determine whether evolution or creation fits the facts better.
Not all texts teach all the following ideas, but some texts do teach all of them, and most texts teach most of them.
1. Earth and life originated billions of years ago.
"Many scientists estimate that the earth is more than 4.5 billion years old ... It is believed that life in the form of living cells first appeared on earth more than three billion years ago" - Modern Biology, Holt, p. 158.
2. Evolution tries to explain the origin of the earth, sun, and heavenly bodies.
"Biologists are studying even the evolution of the earth itself, and of the other planets, and the sun" - Biological Science, Heath, p. 73 (cf. Scott, Foresman, p. 188).
This generally involves the "Big Bang" theory.
3. Evolution explains the origin of life as one or a few cells.
"Evolution is therefore being studied as the process by which life not only diversified, but first arose" - Biological Science, Heath, p. 74.
"A recent hypothesis about the origin of life suggests that life began on Earth billions of years ago when simple gases started to combine with each other" - Biology, Scott, Foresman, p. 12.
4. All present kinds of life developed gradually over millions of years from the original simple life forms. Man and animals have a common animal ancestor.
"New species of living plants and animals have come about as the result of changes in the old species ... The theory of evolution attempts to answer the question: How did so many different kinds of plants and animals come about?" - Biological Science, Heath, p. 47.
"The development of a species is called speciation. Since life began, species have been disappearing and developing. This process is still going on today" - Modern Biology, Holt, p. 171.
"We know that we are closely related to other animals, and recent ... studies demonstrate that we are much closer to our nearest relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, than was imagined even a decade ago" - Anthropology, Random House, p. 10.
5. Evolution conflicts with creation and the Bible.
Some texts try to explain away the contradictions between evolution and the Bible; but others, especially in advanced courses, openly admit that evolution contradicts the Bible.
"Previous to [the 15th and 16th centuries] many educated people rejected the idea of evolution in favor of the view that species were fixed and unchanging" - Biological Science, Heath, p. 53.
[In earlier centuries, the] "commonly accepted explanation for the origin of species was the one outlined in Genesis, that God created the species during the original six days of Creation ... However, in contrast, contemporary scholars see an evolutionary basis for taxonomy" - Anthropology, Random House, pp. 25,26.
"The Biblical doctrine of creationism was placed in some doubt as important fossil discoveries were made ... The alternative to creationism ... was transformism, also called evolution ... In contrast to proponents of divine creation, Darwin argued that the number of species was not immutable..." - Anthropology, Random House, p. 26.
6. Evolution is one of the most important theories in science.
"In 1859, the English scientist Charles Darwin published his theory of natural selection. This theory of how different species develop in evolution is one of the most important in the history of science" - Modern Biology, Holt, pp. 166,167.
"Of all the theories you may study in biology, the theory of evolution occupies a unique place ... It is so much a part of the foundation of biology that science can hardly be understood without it" - Biological Science, Heath, p. 64 (cf. Scott, Foresman, pp. 187,214).
"An evolutionary approach ... orients this book" - Anthropology, Random House, p. 12.
7. Much evidence supports evolution and little evidence contradicts it.
Later in our study we will cite specific examples of the evidence cited.
Note carefully that, contrary to what some would tell us, high schools do not just teach that animals adapt to their environment. They are teaching general evolution: that evolution explains the ultimate origin of the universe, life, and all the kinds of living things.
Despite the emphasis on evolution, only a few texts even mention creation! If they do mention it, they then attempt to disprove it or they simply refuse to discuss it, claiming that it is not a scientific issue but a religious issue!
So, the books make much effort to prove evolution, but virtually no effort to defend creation! The effect is to lead students to think there is much scientific evidence for evolution but little or none for creation. We will see, however, that the evidence for creation is at least as strong as that for evolution.
Since the textbooks do not fairly define creation, let us explain it here. Creation teaches the following:
1. The earth, sun, moon, and stars were all created by direct acts of the eternal, living God - Gen. 1:1,14-19.
2. In a short period of time (six days), God brought into existence all the different kinds of living things on earth - plants, animals, and man - Acts 17:24-29; Gen. 1; Ex. 20:11.
This contradicts the evolutionary view that living things developed over millions of years.
3. Each kind of living thing reproduces after its own kind, though each is able to adapt to its environment - Gen. 1:11,21,24,25.
Natural variation allows dogs to vary and adapt to their environment, but the offspring of dogs are always other dogs, not snakes or birds! The same is true for each kind of living thing.
Galatians 6:7,8 says this same principle applies to man's eternal destiny. Like produces like. Good conduct leads to a good destiny and evil conduct to an evil destiny. If we deny this, then we will be confused, not only about our origins, but also about our destiny!
Evolution conflicts with creation because it claims that, given enough time, kinds of living things develop into different kinds, so all the present kinds came from one original kind.
4. Man is unique from and superior to the animals. Man and animals do not have a common animal ancestor - Gen. 1:26-28; 2:7,21,22.
Man was not formed from "lower animals," but was created directly by God in the image of God. Hence man possesses many qualities in common with God that could not have evolved from lower animals. Specifically, man was created directly from the ground, and woman was formed from man.
5. Man's original condition and environment were more advantageous than they are now - Genesis 1:31; 3:1-6,16-19.
After creation man was placed into ideal circumstances, but these conditions were ruined as a consequence of man's wrongdoing. In contrast to evolution, which concludes that man is continually progressing, creation says that man's conditions are worse than they originally were. This is why man needs a Savior.
6. Creation conflicts with evolution, and the consequences are profound.
Obviously, major consequences will follow, depending on which theory of origins one accepts. If God created us, it follows that He has a purpose for our existence and would communicate to us what His will is. Hence, man is expected to live according to a standard of right and wrong, revealed to us by God. God will hold us accountable and ultimately reward us according to how well we live according to that standard - Proverbs 3:5,6. In short, creation confirms all the facts that we earlier listed as being established by creation.
On the other hand, the consequences of evolution are just as profound, leading to logical conclusions which many evolutionists accept. These include that we are here by accident, so there is no purpose to life. There is no higher intelligence than man, so we must decide for ourselves what we think to be good or bad (situation ethics and individual autonomy). Man is entirely physical, like the animals from which we evolved, so there is no existence after death. There is no God to whom we are accountable and no eternal rewards for our lives. This philosophy, known as Secular Humanism, includes atheism, agnosticism, and skepticism of all kinds.
This conflict of fundamental beliefs is the exact reason why the issue of origins is such a controversial and important issue.
Having stated repeatedly what creation demonstrates about God, the Bible also tells us how we ought to approach the evidence. This approach is based on observing nature, but does not require scientific technicalities.
God's invisible attributes (Deity and power) can be seen and understood by the things He made. So we need not be scientists, capable of arguing scientific technicalities, to settle the issue of God's existence. The evidence is "clearly seen" by observing the universe. There is no excuse for those who do not recognize this; so this is something any of us can see for ourselves.
Note that, when people claim that God does not exist or worship some other "god," they may profess to be wise: they claim that their view is based on superior evidence (it is "scientific"). But in reality they have become fools, for they have rejected the obvious truth.
The heavens declare God's glory and the firmament shows that it is the work of His hands. We can learn this as we observe the heavenly bodies, such as the cycle of day and night. The message is not spoken in human language, yet it has gone to the whole world. Again our own observation can convince us that the universe was made by the hands of God.
The beasts of the earth, the birds of the air, the fish of the sea, and the earth itself likewise explain and instruct us. Who among them does not know that God's hand did all this? Of course, they do not know it consciously. The point, as with the heavens, is that their nature and existence proclaim this message to us. Observing them should convincingly demonstrate the truth, so these are lessons we can learn from them.
Paul taught heathen idol worshipers that there is a true and living God who made the world and rules over it. He gives to all life, breath, and all things. In Him we live and move and have our being. Even heathen poets recognize that we are the offspring of God. This should teach us that God cannot be simply gold or stone or something that man has made.
Again, Paul did not need to offer technical arguments. Simply observing the universe should convince people of God's existence and that He is a powerful, living God.
We should praise God, because we are fearfully and wonderfully made. God formed us, His works are marvelous, and we should know that very well. So the human body also serves to convince us that God is creator.
All these passages show that, even without technical knowledge, we can observe for ourselves the universe around us and conclude that there must be a God who made it. This conclusion should be obvious when we observe the heavenly bodies, the animals, the earth, and our own bodies.
This is not to say that science contradicts the Bible view of creation. On the contrary, the better we understand true science, the more evidence we find to confirm creation. Such evidence is useful and worth studying. But the point is that we do not need to be scientists to observe the world around us and reach a valid conclusion regarding the evidence for creation vs. evolution. And we surely do not need to take scientists' word for which view is correct. We should not be intimidated by those who claim that evolution is scientific but creation is not. As with all issues that affect our salvation, God has given us the ability to observe the evidence for ourselves and reach a proper conclusion regarding what is and is not true.
So let us use the approach discussed in these Scriptures. Let us consider what we can observe for ourselves regarding the universe, and let us see whether or not we can reach conclusions that can convince the honest person regarding the evidence.
Public high school science texts sometimes admit that evolution has not been conclusively proved. However, when they present the evidence, they make it sound as convincing as they can.
"Today we have evidence that life evolved when the earth was still young" - Biological Science, Heath, p. 69.
Let us consider the most commonly used lines of evidence offered for evolution.
An explanation of natural selection
Texts thoroughly explain how natural processes destroy weaker organisms. Those that survive are "fittest." They have advantages, such as strength, height, or quickness, that help them survive longer than others. Allegedly they will have more offspring, and the offspring will likely have these same qualities.
As time passes, more and more offspring have these qualities. Given enough time, this process is supposed to produce such great changes that new kinds of living things result. (Typical presentations are found in Heath, pp. 63,64 and Scott, Foresman, p. 219.)
Evidence for natural selection
Remember that the texts describe evolution as the process by which all present kinds of living things developed from one original kind. But the evidence they offer gives only examples of variation within kinds - absolutely no examples of new kinds. Here are some typical examples. (See Scott, Foresman, pp. 208ff; Heath, pp. 62,63. Note that Scott, Foresman, on p. 15, distinguishes kinds from variation within kinds.)
1. Peppered moths - Years ago in England, Peppered Moths were light in color, but when pollution blackened the trees, they were easily found and eaten by enemies. Soon a darker variety of Peppered Moth began to predominate. Anti-pollution methods will allegedly lighten the trees and then light-colored Peppered Moths will again predominate. (See Scott, Foresman, pp. 210,211). But the result was still a moth, and a Peppered Moth at that! No new kind of living thing developed. What evolution needs is evidence that natural selection can produce new kinds of organisms.
2. Bacteria become resistant to penicillin. But they are still the same kind of bacteria that they were before, not a new kind.
3. Insects become resistant to DDT. But they are still the same kind of insects. They have simply adapted to their environment.
4. Breeding improves strains of cattle (or other organisms). But they are still the same kind of living thing. The cattle did not become dogs, birds, or people.
All students can witness for themselves that living things reproduce after their own kind. It happens every day. Yet after years of research, the best evidence that the evolutionists can find simply demonstrates variations within kind. This agrees with the Bible and argues for creation, not evolution (Gen. 1:11,21,24,25).
An Explanation of the Fossil Argument
Fossils are remains of ancient plants and animals. The "geologic column" supposedly demonstrates that fossils found deeper in the earth are older than those found closer to the surface. These deeper fossils are often simpler than those not so deep. It is argued that this proves that more complex animals gradually evolved from the simpler ones.
"Fossils Give Evidence for Evolution ...
"Fossils form a record in the rocks that supports the idea that life has evolved over very long periods of time from simple to more complex varieties ... The fossil evidence suggests that life has been changing slowly from one form to another over millions of years" (Biological Science, Heath, pp. 48,51; cf. Scott, Foresman, pp. 188ff).
Weaknesses of the fossil argument
The "geologic column" is not found in any one place on earth. It is a conglomeration of layers found in various places and then pieced together. In many places major sections are missing, and sections even overlap or are found in different orders. The age of various layers is determined largely by circular reasoning based on the assumption that evolution is true: the assumed age of the rocks is used to date the fossils, but the age of the fossils is used to date the rocks!
The greatest problem with the fossil argument is the "missing links." If evolution is true, we should find thousands of fossils of ancient animals in intermediate stages of development between the present kinds, such as half fish and half reptile. Yet the distinctions between the fossils of living things are generally as clearly defined as the distinctions between present kinds of living organisms. Old kinds become extinct (which no creationist denies), but nothing demonstrates organisms halfway between the present kinds.
Compare the quote in the student text above to the following quote, which is found in a teacher's edition but withheld from the students:
"Lack of a complete fossil record is one of the main weaknesses of the theory of evolution" - Scott, Foresman Teacher's Edition, p. 192.
When viewed in a different way, the evidence which has been offered for evolution becomes evidence for creation. Not only does current experience show that living things reproduce after their own kind, but the fossil evidence confirms this. Again, this agrees with the Bible (Gen. 1:11,21,24,25).
The evidence in the textbooks
"Homologous organs" are organs which are similar in structure but are found in different kinds of organisms. Consider this quote:
"The bones of a bird's wing, a horse's front leg, a whale's paddle, and a human arm are homologous organs. These bones are so similar that, for the most part, they have the same names ... Their likenesses indicate a genetic relationship through a common ancestor ... Likenesses between embryos, the developing organisms, also seem to indicate a common ancestor" - Modern Biology, Holt, p. 165 (cf. Scott, Foresman, pp. 199,202f).
So it is assumed that living things have similar structures because they inherited them from a common ancestor.
Weaknesses in this evidence
Similarity does not necessarily prove common ancestry. All of us have met people who were more similar to people from other families than to anyone in their own family.
Similarity of structure is actually a good argument for creation by a common Creator. Intelligent inventors use similar structures (wheels, gears, levers, etc.) to accomplish similar functions in completely different inventions (cars, clocks, and sewing machines). This does not prove these machines evolved from one another by natural processes, but that they were all invented by intelligent beings. So God, having "invented" a structure that is useful in accomplishing some function, used it to accomplish similar functions in different organisms.
These are the main evidences cited in the texts. All other evidence can likewise be explained as well by creation as by evolution, but the creationist explanation is never given in the texts!
Despite giving much evidence for evolution, the texts almost universally give no evidence whatever for creation. Some flatly claim that there is no evidence against evolution:
"...no major pattern of scientific evidence that conflicts with [Darwin's] theory has turned up" - Biology, Scott, Foresman, p. 222.
Some claim that creation, if it occurred, would be a matter of history, so no scientific experiment could prove it (Scott, Foresman, p. 10). However, exactly the same point can be made for evolution! If all living things evolved from a single organism, that is a matter of history, and no experiment could ever prove it.
Actually, both evolution and creation are matters of faith, not personal observation. Faith involves believing a thing on the basis of evidence, though we never personally saw it. In the case of origins, the evidence consists of inferences drawn from scientific evidence. But in addition, creation also has the eyewitness testimony of the Creator who inspired many Bible writers to record what He did.
High school texts to the contrary notwithstanding, there is so much evidence for creation, that we will take the space only to briefly summarize a small portion.
The scientific evidence
Everyone can see, and science has repeatedly confirmed, that living things come from other living things. This is called the "Law of Biogenesis." Textbooks explain at great length how this law was thoroughly proved by Redi and Pasteur, who conclusively disproved "spontaneous generation." (See, for example, Heath, pp. 69ff and Scott, Foresman, pp. 10,11). There is simply no scientific evidence that life can suddenly appear where there was no life before. This completely harmonizes with creation, which says that all life was created by an eternally living God (Acts 14:15; 17:24,25,28,29). It is shameful to say man is the offspring of a stone (Jeremiah 2:26,27).
The problem for evolution
Evolution conflicts the scientific evidence since it claims that sometime life must have come from non-life. Having shown at length that spontaneous generation was disproved, the books then try to explain how, nevertheless, scientists believe it did happen once!
Heath (pp. 74ff) and Scott, Foresman (pp. 12ff) explain what would be needed for life to form in nature from non-life. (1) Certain chemicals, given an electric charge, would form amino acids. (2) Amino acids then form complex molecules in the presence of heat. These first two steps have occurred under carefully controlled laboratory experiments, but there is no proof they have ever happened in nature.
(3) Complex molecules must then form protein, the basic substance of life. This has never been accomplished in laboratories or in nature! (4) Proteins must then combine to form complex proteins. This too has never been duplicated. (5) Complex proteins must form a cell. This has never been duplicated. (6) Finally, the cell must somehow come to life, and this has never been duplicated. All this is made clear in the texts.
So the score for evolution is two "maybe's" followed by four "no's," and we are supposed to believe that equals a "yes"! And that is scientific, but to believe in creation is "unscientific"!
This is also a recognized principle of life that can easily be proved by observation and scientific experimentation. The offspring of dogs is another dog and the offspring of trees is another tree, etc. Neither in fossils nor in current experience is there convincing evidence that nature can produce a substantially different kind of living thing, such that all life could have evolved from an original form.
The reason for this, discovered relatively recently, is that inheritance is controlled by genes in the cells. Each kind of living organism has its own unique genes, which are passed on to the offspring in reproduction. There is some variation in the genes so there is room for organisms to adapt to their environment. But there is a limit to how much change can occur, because the genes of any kind of living thing differ from those of other kinds.
Some claim that mutations can introduce new forms of life, but mutations are almost universally harmful to the survival of the organism. And there is no proof that mutations have ever formed even a new organ let alone an entirely new kind of living thing.
All this completely agrees with creation, which says all things reproduce after their own kind (Gen. 1:11, etc.). It disagrees with evolution, which says that all the kinds came from an original kind. Laws of heredity agree with creation, not evolution. See Gen. 1:11,21,24,25; Jer. 2:26,27.
Evolution cannot explain the great difference between man and animals.
(1) Consider man's intelligence. Only man accumulates knowledge and passes it on to future generations. Only man communicates by reading, writing, and mathematical calculations using abstract symbols. Only man deliberately makes constructive use of fire. Only man invents team sports with organized rules. Only man invents new tools and machines to do his work. For every kind of animal there exists other kinds with nearly the same degree of intelligence. Why is there such a gap in intelligence between man and animals?
(2) Consider man's ability to appreciate music, art, poetry, humor, and the beauty of nature. What animals create new jokes for the sake of humor or new works of art for the sake of beauty? How can these qualities be explained by survival of the fittest?
(3) Consider man's conscience and sense of right and wrong. Only man wears clothes, has a sense of shame, seeks an object of worship, and has hope for immortality. Why are there no animals with all levels of these qualities, just slightly different from men?
Creation can explain these qualities.
Man was made "in the image of God" (Gen. 1:26-28; James 3:9,10; Psalms 8:4-8). God possess intelligence, appreciation for beauty, and a sense of moral right and wrong. He placed these in humans because we are in His image. Animals do not possess these because they are not in His image. Again, creation, not evolution, agrees with what we observe. Note Jeremiah 2:27.
Intelligent beings can recognize evidence of intelligence in work done by other intelligent beings.
This is a universal truth. Anyone who observed a car, house, radio, etc., would immediately know it was made by an intelligent being, even if he had no knowledge of who that being was. We can recognize, not just the existence of intelligence, but also the degree of intelligence.
The earth and living things bear innumerable signs of being the work of an intelligent being.
The cell is the basic building block of life. It can only be seen with a microscope, yet it is far more complex than any IBM computer. If computers are made only by intelligent beings, why not also the cell?
Inside the cell are the genes that determine heredity. The information in the genes of one cell, if written out in English, would require a 1000-volume encyclopedia. Encyclopedias are written by intelligent beings. Who made the genes?
The eye cannot be matched by any man-made camera for its combination of accuracy, mobility, detail, self-adjustment, and self-repair and cleaning. Cameras are made by intelligent beings. Who can believe the eye came from any other source? The same applies to other organs in the human body - Psalms 139:14.
Creation agrees with the common sense conclusion that the amazing features of plants, animals, and people were all made by a supremely intelligent Being (Rom. 1:20; Psalm 19:1; 139:14). Evolution requires that all this happened by chance - life began by chance and evolves by random mutations. This has been proved to be mathematically impossible.
Many organisms in nature cannot exist without one another.
For example the Yucca plant cannot produce seed till it is pollinated by the Yucca moth. But the moth larva cannot live unless it eats the Yucca plant seeds. The plant cannot reproduce without the moth and the moth cannot reproduce without the plant.
Another example is sexual reproduction, in which neither the male nor the female alone can reproduce without the other.
Photosynthesis in plants takes in carbon dioxide and gives off oxygen so the plant can grow. Animals eat the plant, take in oxygen, and give off carbon dioxide. Without the plants, the animals would soon have neither food nor oxygen. Without the animals, the plants would not have carbon dioxide and other necessary raw materials.
Evolution cannot explain this inter-dependence, but creation can.
In each of these cases and many others, if one form of life developed gradually over millions of years, it would have died out because it could not reproduce or live without the other kind. Out of all the millions of years of history, both kinds would have to develop at the same time and then discover one another before they died. Otherwise they could never live or reproduce!
Creation simply explains that God made the different living things within a few days of one another and created them to help one another.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that, although energy cannot ultimately be destroyed, yet it is continually being converted into unusable forms that escape and are permanently lost. This is one of the most conclusively proven laws in science. It illustrates the universal principle that nature tends to go from a state of order to disorder: metal rusts, tools wear out, living things grow old and die.
All this implies that the universe began sometime in the past and is now "running down." This agrees with creation but disagrees with evolution, which says the universe is building up, improving, and becoming more complex and orderly.
This is just a sample of the scientific evidence that can be presented for creation.
The seven Biology texts that we reviewed spent, on the average 46 pages defining, explaining, and defending evolution. On the average they devoted zero pages to creation (though a few books contain a few sentences about it). Clearly textbooks are teaching evolution to the exclusion of creation.
Humanists and liberal-minded people are continually crusading against "censorship" in the schools. Yet no subject has been more "censored" (in the sense they use the word) than creation. And it is being censored by the very humanists and liberals that claim to hate censorship!
Note Romans 1:20,22 - Trusting human wisdom without God makes men fools.
For a detailed study about creation vs. evolution, visit our Bible Instruction web site at /creation/.
Anthropology: the Exploration of Human Diversity, Second Ed., Random House, 1978.
Biological Science - A Molecular Approach, Fourth Ed., D. C. Heath, 1980.
Biological Science - An Inquiry into Life, Fourth Ed., Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1980.
Biology, Macmillan, 1981.
Biology, Scott, Foresman, 1980.
Biology, Silver, Burdett, 1981.
Biology - Living Systems, Merrill, 1979.
Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1981.
This is part of a complete series of evidences for
the major claims of the Bible that God exists, the Bible is God's word, and
Jesus is God's Son. To continue with the next article in the series, please go
To start at the beginning of the series, please go to /god/evidences.php.
Copyright 2006 David E. Pratte
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